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Wednesday, July 2, 2008

Indian Art and Craft : Carpets from Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan - 16

Pile carpets were probably introduced into India from Iran. During the Mughal period, this craft flourished in Agra, Delhi and Lahore. Kashmir developed its carpet industry in the 15th century AD. Here carpet making closely follows the shawl-weaving tradition with designs based on Persian and Central Asian styles.

The important centers of carpet weaving in India are Srinagar in Kashmir, Jaipur in Rajsthan, Amritsar in Punjab, Mirzapur and Agra in Uttar Pradesh and Warangal and Elluru in Andhra Pradesh. Amritsar, a late entrant, developed its industry only at the start of the 19th century. It has a tradition of weaving fine quality rugs with geometrical patterns called Mouri. Jaipur Mirzapur and Bhadoi produce quality carpets, which vary form 80 knots to 120 knots per square inch. In Andhra Pradesh, geometrical patterned carpets of quality of around 30 to 60 knots per inch are mostly meant for export.

A variety of floor coverings are used in Indian homes. The durree is a cotton-woven thick fabric meant for spreading on the floor. Weaving of a durree is a common sight in most Indian villages. The flat woven rugs can be found all over India. Some areas only produce cotton durries, but those in Jodhpur, Rajasthan include cotton, wool and silk. The geometric designs are produced by tapestry technique which is a slow process using separate bobbins or butterflies for each colour across the width interlocking with the adjacent coloured yarn. The weavers sit cross-legged on the side of the loom, sometimes with a weaver on each side. In the states of Punjab and Haryana, the Jat women weave durrees for their personal use. Jaisalmer and Barmer in Rajasthan produce woollen durries. Uttar Pradesh is an important commercial weaving centre for durrees. Other centres for weaving include Navalgund in Karnataka and Salem in Tamil Nadu. The Navalgund durrees are also known as Jamkhans. Richly patterned in rust, yellow, green and black, they depict stylized parrots and peacocks. The Salem durrees, woven in silk and cotton are prepared in brilliant colours with a central pattern of lotus and borders with flowing floral patterns. Warangal near Hyderabad is known for the Bandha or Ikat durrees. Kashmir is known for Namdas, Hook rugs and Gabbas. Namdas are made of felted wool and cotton and are embroidered with woollen chain stitches. The hook rug is made with a hook called ahri. A thick jute cloth is used and then it is embroiedered worked with a hook called ahri. A thick jute cloth is used and then it is embroidered fully so that the base material is not visible. The Gabba is a kind of an applique work done on worn out woollen blankets.

Related Links:

01. Indian Art and Craft : The Living Age - 1
02. Indian Art and Craft : The painting history of India - 2
03. Indian Art and Craft : India the home of Painting - 3
04. Indian Art and Craft : Ajanta Paintings - 4
05. Indian Art and Craft : Floor Designs and Madhubani Paintings - 5
06. Indian Art and Craft : Art of body painting - 6
07. Indian Art and Craft : Shekhavati - India's Open Air Art Gallery - 7
08. Indian Art and Craft : Contemporary Painting - 8
09. Indian Art and Craft : Crafts Traditions- 9
10. Indian Art and Craft : Metal Work - 10
11. Indian Art and Craft : Metal Work and Engraving - 11
12. Indian Art and Craft : Sculpture - The Essence of Art - 12
13. Indian Art and Craft : Jewellery Styles - Meenakshi and Kunda - 13
14. Indian Art and Craft : Nagaland, Assam, TamilNadu Jewellery - 14
15. Indian Art and Craft : Carpets and Textiles of India (Indian History of Carpets) - 15
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